Attainment can be broken down into two main measures: 1) threshold measures (% attaining expected and high standards) and 2) average scaled scores.
1) Pupils included in and excluded from threshold measures
All pupils are included in this measure initially. Pupils can be discounted if they are recent arrivals from overseas, are EAL and from a non-English speaking country. Such pupils are identified during the checking exercise in September, using the results list sent via NCA Tools. Consequently, due to timing, discounted pupils are included in unvalidated data but are removed from later, validated data releases including the performance tables. All other pupils are included in the measure including pupils that were absent, below standard of tests, or disapplied. Pupils that achieve 100+ (or who have a TA of EXS in writing) are deemed to have met the expected standard; those that achieve a score of 110+ (or have a TA of GDS in writing) are deemed to have met the high standard. They are the only pupils in the numerator. All other pupils are in the denominator with exception of any discounted pupils. Again, discounting does not take effect until validated data release.
2) average scaled scores
Only pupils with a scaled score of 80+ are included in this measure. Nominal scores assigned to pre-key stage assessments (70-79) are only used in the progress measure. Nominal scores are not used in average scaled score calculation.
This is the real minefield and I created the following diagram to help navigate it:
Essentially to be included in the progress measure a pupil needs a start point (KS1 result) and an end point (KS2 score). The score can be a scaled score from a test or a nominal score assigned to a pre-key stage assessment or teacher assessment in the case of writing.
Scaled scores range from 80 to 120.
Writing scores as follows:
WTS = 90
EXS = 103
GDS = 113
(Note: these may change this year)
Nominal scores are as follows:
BLW = 70
PKF = 73
PKE = 76
PKG = 79
(Note: these may also change this year)
So, if a pupil has a) a KS1 start point, and b) and KS2 score as detailed above, they will be included in progress measures.
Those that are excluded from progress measures (and this is where it gets complicated and may well change this year) are as follows:
No KS1 result
pupils without a start point are not included. They are not assigned a nominal baseline.
Absent (A code)
Pupils that are absent from tests are excluded from progress measures even if they also have a pre-key stage assessment
Disapplied (D code)
Pupils that are disapplied are also excluded from progress measures. This is a commonly misunderstood term, confused with 'below standard of test'. It actually should only be used in cases where a pupil has been disapplied from the national curriculum and it is therefore not possible to make a teacher assessment. A disapplied pupils cannot therefore have a pre-key stage assessment. I have seen numerous examples of pupils coded as D, that actually should have had a B code and accompanying PKS assessment. Disapplied should be a rare occurrence in mainstream settings.
No scale score awarded and has HNM or EXS teacher assessment
These are the progress loophole pupils. They sat the test but failed to achieve enough marks to get the lowest scale score of 80. There were around 350 in maths last year but around 3500 in reading. Because HNM and EXS do not have an associated nominal score, if a pupil with one of those teacher assessments fails to achieve a scale score, then they end up with no score at all, and no score means they cannot be included in progress measures. The STA have stated that they intend to close the loophole this year, which probably means assigning a nominal score to HNM and EXS for such instances. We don't know what the nominal score would be but it seems logical to assume it would be capped at 79.
Missing result (M code)
If the result is missing, the pupil is excluded from progress measures.
Unable to access test (T or U code)
Again, pupils with these codes are excluded from progress measures.
Think that's pretty much evevrything.
Hope it's useful.